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    Post-cloud Computing Models: from Cloud to CDEF

    Since cloud computing has been widely accepted, progress in research and development enriched the landscape of this area. Such progress can be summarized in the following way: From cloud to CDEF, where C represents Cloudlet, D represents Dew Computing, E represents Edge Computing, and F represents Fog Computing. CDEF starts with C also implies that these four models all started from Cloud Computing.

    The cloudlet model promotes to put small-scale cloud data centers at locations where they are closer to users [1][2].

    The key features of dew computing are that on-premises computers provide functionality independent of cloud services and they also collaborate with cloud services. Dew computing promotes that all on-premises computer applications get support from cloud services, if possible. With dew computing, cloud computing can reach its greatest popularity. Dew computing is complementary to cloud computing [3][4][5].

    Edge computing pushes applications, data, and services away from central servers (core) to the edge of a network; it is based on the core-edge topology. Edge Computing refers to the enabling technologies allowing computation to be performed at the edge of the network, on downstream data on behalf of cloud services and upstream data on behalf of IoT services [6][7][8][9].

    Fog computing is a scenario where a huge number of heterogeneous devices communicate and potentially cooperate among them and with the network to perform storage and processing tasks without the intervention of third-parties. Fog computing extends cloud computing and services to devices such as routers, routing switches, multiplexers, and so on [10][11][12].

    All these computing models share a common feature: they all perform computing tasks at devices that are closer to users [13].

    CDEF (Cloudlet, Dew computing, Edge computing, and Fog computing) appeared after cloud computing was widely accepted; they could be called post-cloud computing models. CDEF is an unofficial, easy-to-remember way to refer to these models. CDEF starts with C also implies that these models all started from cloud computing.

    CDEF originated from different background, proposed to solve different problems, related to different disciplines/industries, involved different devices, and have different methodologies. The relationships among CEDF are similar to the relationships among different programming languages: although each programming language has full computing power of a Turing Machine, each language has its own style, strength, and characteristics. In the similar way, although the definitions of each of these CDEF computing models may be expanded to cover wider application areas, each of these models are more suitable to be used in some specific areas. From cloud to CDEF, the landscape of post-cloud computing is more versatile and prosperous.

    References

    [1] S. Ibrahim, H. Jin, B. Cheng, H. Cao, S. Wu, and L. Qi, “CLOUDLET: towards mapreduce implementation on virtual machines,” in Proceedings of the 18th ACM International Symposium on High Performance Distributed Computing, HPDC 2009, Garching, Germany, June 11-13, 2009, 2009, pp. 65 – 66. [Online]. Available: http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1551609.1551624
    [2] M. Satyanarayanan, P. Bahl, R. Caceres, and N. Davies, “The case for vm-based cloudlets in mobile computing,” IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 14 – 23, Oct 2009.
    [3] Y. Wang, “Cloud-dew architecture,” International Journal of Cloud Computing, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 199 – 210, 2015.
    [4] K. Skala, D. Davidovic, E. Afgan, I. Sovic, and Z. Sojat, “Scalable distributed computing hierarchy: Cloud, fog and dew computing,” Open Journal of Cloud Computing (OJCC), vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 16 – 24, 2015.
    [5] Yingwei Wang, “De nition and categorization of dew computing,” Open Journal of Cloud Computing (OJCC), vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1 – 7, 2016.
    [6] Q. Pu, G. Ananthanarayanan, P. Bodik, S. Kandula, A. Akella, P. Bahl, and I. Stoica, “Low latency geo-distributed data analytics,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 421 – 434, Aug. 2015. [Online]. Available: http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2829988.2787505
    [7] P. Garcia Lopez, A. Montresor, D. Epema, A. Datta, T. Higashino, A. Iamnitchi, M. Barcellos, P. Felber, and E. Riviere, “Edge-centric computing: Vision and challenges,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 37 – 42, Sep. 2015. [Online]. Available: http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2831347.2831354
    [8] W. Shi, J. Cao, Q. Zhang, Y. Li, and L. Xu, \Edge computing: Vision and challenges,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 637 – 646, Oct 2016.
    [9] M. Satyanarayanan, “The emergence of edge computing,” Computer, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 30 – 39, Jan 2017.
    [10] Flavio Bonomi. (2011, Sept.) Connected vehicles, the internet of things, and fog computing. [Online]. Available: https://www.sigmobile.org/mobicom/2011/vanet2011/program.html
    [11] F. Bonomi, R. Milito, J. Zhu, and S. Addepalli, “Fog computing and its role in the internet of things,” in Proceedings of the First
    Edition of the MCC Workshop on Mobile Cloud Computing, ser. MCC’12. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2012, pp. 13 – 16. [Online]. Available: http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2342509.2342513
    [12] L. M. Vaquero and L. Rodero-Merino, “Finding your way in the fog: Towards a comprehensive de nition of fog computing,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 27 – 32, Oct. 2014. [Online]. Available: http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2677046.2677052
    [13] Y. Pan, P. Thulasiraman, and Y. Wang, “Overview of Cloudlet, Fog Computing, Edge Computing, and Dew Computing,” in Proceedings of The 3rd International Workshop on Dew Computing, Oct. 2018, pp. 20 – 23.

    DEWCOM 2018 held in Toronto, Canada

    The 3rd International Workshop on Dew Computing (DEWCOM 2018) has been successfully held on October 29 – 30, 2018 in Toronto, Canada.

    DEWCOM 2018 was held together with the 28th Annual International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering (CASCON 2018).  It was sponsored by IBM Centre for Advanced Studies, CASCON 2018, and the School of Mathematical and Computational Sciences at the University of Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    DEWCOM 2018 held 1 tutorial, presented 7 papers. The 1st DewCom STC Committee Face-to-face Meeting was also held during DEWCOM 2018.

    The papers presented in DEWCOM 2018 have been listed in the Resources Section of this website. Full content and the Proceedings will be first available to DewCom STC members in about two weeks; they will be available to the general public later.

    We encourage dew computing researchers, professionals, and students to join DewCom STC and to attend our annual workshop/conference to obtain up-to-date information about dew computing progress.

     

    DewCom STC Statistics Update

    From now on, the statistics of DewCom STC will be updated at the following webpage:

    http://www.dewcomputing.org/index.php/ieee-dew-computing-stc/

     

    DewCom STC Members Spread Over 17 Countries

    The website of DewCom STC was launched on Jun.21, 2018. In two months, 33 researchers, professionals, and students joined DewCom STC.

    DewCom STC members are from 17 different countries: Canada, USA, Croatia, Austria, Germany, Romania, Sweden, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, China, India, Pakistan, Australia.

    Researchers, professionals, and students with interests in dew computing are welcomed to join DewCom STC as a member. The join link is here. The website of DewCom STC is: https://stc.computer.org/dewcomputing/. DewCom STC members may be members of the IEEE, the Computer Society, or nonmembers of either. Currently, DewCom STC’s membership is free.

    The logo of DewCom STC is shown below:

    IEEE-CS_DewComputing_STC

    LinkedIn Groups Created

    To facilitate collaborations between members of dew computing community, and to prepare for the coming DEWCOM 2018 workshop, two LinkedIn Groups were created. Among the few major social media platforms, such as Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn, we chose LinkedIn because (1) it is the one that is most relevant to science and technology; (2) it is the one that can reach most of the countries. Some other platforms are blocked by some countries.

    The first group is “Dew Computing” group, and its URL is https://www.linkedin.com/groups/13612757. We encourage all researchers, professionals, and students who are interested in dew computing to join this group. In this way, we can easily and quickly exchange ideas related to dew computing research, products, funding, and training opportunities.

    The second group is “DEWCOM2018”, and its URL is https://www.linkedin.com/groups/13612781. This is an ad-hoc group specifically created for DEWCOM 2018. Joining this group is equivalent to DEWCOM 2018 registration. This group will be used to communicate all the details related to this workshop. It will be used to reach each other on the conference site and on the way to/from the conference. It will also be used to distribute DEWCOM related documents and photos. When everything is finished, this group will be deleted. For long-term connection related to this area, people should join “Dew Computing” group.

    For those who are already in LinkedIn, you may easily find these groups through the above links or search group names. For those who are not already in LinkedIn yet, you may want to do a quick LinkedIn registration and then find the groups.

     

    Call For Paper: The 3rd International Workshop on Dew Computing

    New research area: Dew Computing; new CFP: https://easychair.org/cfp/dewcom-2018; new opportunities.

    DewCom STC Website Launched

    As described in http://www.dewcomputing.org/index.php/2017/12/22/ieee-computer-society-approved-stcdc/, IEEE Computer Society established IEEE Computer Society Dew Computing Special Technical Community (DewCom STC) in December 2017. Because IEEE Computer Society has gone through a lengthy process to rebrand its websites, logos, and so on, the website of DewCom STC has just been launched; its URL is: http://stc.computer.org/dewcomputing/.

    Researchers, professionals, and students with interests in dew computing are welcomed to join DewCom STC as a member. The join link is here. DewCom STC members may be members of the IEEE, the Computer Society, or nonmembers of either. DewCom STC’s membership is free.

    The logo of DewCom STC is shown below:

    IEEE-CS_DewComputing_STC

    A Brief Introduction to Dew Computing in YouTube

    Authors: Kosay Jabre, Ryan Berry, Cal Morrison, and Yijun Ye.

    IEEE Computer Society to Create STC on Dew Computing

    On Dec. 20, 2017, IEEE Computer Society reviewed the status of dew computing as a new research area, and decided to create an organization to facilitate dew computing research. The name of the organization is: IEEE Computer Society Dew Computing Special Technical Community, or in its short form: DewCom STC.

    DewCom STC  is an open, international IEEE organization composed of researchers, professionals, and students with interests in dew computing. DewCom STC members may be members of the IEEE, the Computer Society, or nonmembers of either. DewCom STC’s membership is free.

     

    DEWCOM 2017 Held in Opatija

    The 2nd International Workshop on Dew Computing (DEWCOM 2017) was held successfully on May 24, 2017 in Opatija, Croatia.

    Detailed information of DEWCOM 2017 can be found in the following link: http://www.dewcomputing.org/index.php/dewcom-2017/

    Twelve papers and 4 oral presentations were accepted by DEWCOM 2017. During the workshop, 10 papers and 3 oral presentations were presented; one invited lecture was also presented.

    Researchers from the following institutions submitted their work to the workshop:

    Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb, Croatia
    NTI, Cairo, Egypt
    Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Irkutsk, Russia
    Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria
    National  Technical  University  of  Ukraine, Ukraine
    University of Paris, France
    CreativiTIC Innova SL, Logroño, Spain
    Medical Research Center, Kyiv, Ukraine
    Faculty Of Computer and Information Science, Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Private Planet, London, United Kingdom
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia
    Faculty of Computer Science, Vienna, Austria
    University of Applied Sciences, Dornbirn, Austria
    University Computing Centre – SRCE, Zagreb, Croatia
    HEP- Distribution System Operator Company Ltd., Pula, Croatia
    CETIC Research Center, Charleroi, Belgium
    Faculty of Computer Sciences and Engineering, Skopje, Macedonia
    Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Maribor, Slovenia
    West University of Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania
    University of Vienna, Faculty of Computer Science, Vienna, Austria
    Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan
    Institute e-Austria Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania
    University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada